China Russia Border Agreement

BEIJING (Reuters) – China and Russia signed a pact on Monday that finally settled the demarcation of their 4,300 km (2,672-mile) border, the scene of armed clashes at the height of the Cold War. Soviet historiography, and in particular Soviet „Uyghur studies,“ were increasingly politicized to match the tone of the Sino-Soviet division of the 1960s and 1970s. A Soviet Turkologist named Tursun Rakhminov, who worked for the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, argued that it was the modern Uyghurs who founded the old country of Oghuz (744-840), the Khan Khan khanate of Kara-Khanid (840-1212) and so on. The wars of these premodern states against Chinese dynasties were spread by the Uyghur ethnic group as struggles for national liberation. Soviet historiography was not consistent on these issues: for example, when Sino-Soviet relations were warmer, the Three District Revolution was presented by Soviet historians as part of the anti-Kuomintang during the Chinese Civil War and not as an anti-Chinese aspiration for national liberation. The Soviet Union also encouraged the migration of Uighurs on its territory to Kazakhstan along the 4,380 km (2,738-mile) long border. In May 1962, 60,000 Uighurs from Xinjiang province crossed the border into the Soviet Union, fleeing famine and the economic chaos of the Great Leap Forward. [11] Civil navigation on border rivers and lakes is permitted provided that each country`s vessels are on the appropriate side of the demarcation line (Article 9); similar rules apply to fishing in these waters (Article 10). The authorities of each country shall take appropriate measures to prevent grazing livestock from entering the other country and shall endeavour to detain and return animals that roam across the border into its territory (Article 17). Firearms hunting is prohibited within 1,000 meters (3300 ft) of the border; Hunters are prohibited from crossing the border to pursue an injured animal (Article 19). [16] The status of the 5 km² (2 mi²) island on the border between China`s Inner Mongolia and Russia`s Chita Oblast and near the cities of Zabaykalsk and Manzhouli was expressly excluded from the agreement. In Chinese, it is known by the Mongolian name of Abaigaitui, while the name in Russian is Bolshoy….