Consider as an example of the two similar countries difference method. Country A has a centre-right government, a uniform system and was a former colony. Country B has a centre-right government, a single system, but has never been a colony. The difference between countries is that Country A easily supports anti-colonial initiatives, while country B does not. The difference method would or would not identify the independent variable as the status of each country as a former colony, the dependent variable supporting anticolonial initiatives. This is because the two similar countries have compared, the difference between the two is whether they were previously a colony or not. This then explains the difference with the values of the dependent variables, the former colony supporting decolonization rather than the country without a history of being a colony. Mills` rule of understanding states that if, in all cases where an effect occurs, there is a single prior C factor common to all of these cases, then C is the cause of the effect. According to the table in this example, the only thing you ate was oysters.
Therefore, if we apply the rule of concordance, we conclude that the consumption of oysters is the cause of the disease. This method is also generally known as the most similar system design in the context of comparative policy. One of the main characteristics of scientific methodology is verification and falsification. Remember J. 4 that an appeal is made to Dieun if we conclude for lack of evidence that something is the case or not. While there are times when a lack of evidence should lead to a judgment that the original claim is not substantiated (as in a criminal court), this is not the case in scientific practices. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who wrote on a wide range of subjects ranging from language and science to political philosophy. The so-called „mill“ methods are five rules for the search for the causes he has proposed. It has been assumed that some of these rules were in fact discussed by the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037). In this case, you are the only one who is not sick. The only difference between you and the others is that you didn`t make a salad. It`s probably the cause of other people`s illnesses.
It is an application of the method of difference. This rule says that if you have a situation that leads to an effect, and another that does not, and the only difference is the presence of only one factor in the first situation, we can infer that factor as the cause of the effect. Symbolically, the common method of agreement and difference can be presented as: „Method of Agreement.“ Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/method%20of%20agreement. Access 30 Nov 2020. Unlike the four previous inductive methods, the method of accompanying variation does not involve the elimination of any circumstances. The change in size of one factor causes another factor to change in size. So far, I have talked a lot about observations and how we can improve them, but we often observe to learn more about causal relationships, what depends on what? I will conclude our discussion of observations by introducing a framework that we can use to understand how scientists draw conclusions based on their observations, experiences and simulations. The logic of observation is based on conclusions was described by John Stuart Mill, a philosopher best known for writing about freedom, but who also has many contributions on how we think about science.
Mill was interested in how we can use observations and experiences to determine the causes or what depends on them. He introduced a series of methods to reflect on the empirical data that we now call Mills` methods. I will talk about the first two of his methods; what we now call the method of agreement and the method of disagreement.