These photos were taken at Camp Minidoka, Idaho, where most of washington State internees lived during World War II. Both were part of a book on the camp written by Japanese internees and published by the United States War Relocation Center. (The microfilmed publication is in the form of an A7797 at the University of Washington Suzzallo Library.) These photos from the Minidoka Consumers` Cooperative show how some of the basic economic needs of residents were met and how Japanese Americans reacted creatively to the difficult life of incarceration. However, in 1879, California passed a new constitution expressly authorizing the government to designate persons authorized to reside in the state and to prohibit Chinese from holding employment by public companies and governments, counties or municipalities.  Although there was a debate as to whether the anti-Chinese animus in California pushed the federal government (California`s thesis) or whether Chinese racism was simply inherent to the country at that time, the federal government was finally persuaded to pass the Chinese exclusion law, which banned all immigration from China for a period of 10 years. Even today, although all of its elements have been repealed for a long time, Chapter 7 of Title 8 of the us code is titled „Exclusion of Chinese.“  This is the only chapter of the 15 chapters of Title 8 (foreigners and nationality) entirely focused on a nationality or ethnic group. Like the next chapter 8, „The Cooly Trade,“ it consists entirely of statutes called „repealed“ or „omitted.“ Despite their status as American citizens, selective service files were collected through Japanese men during World War II. As the recording obtained in these three documents shows, the questions posed by potential recruits give a huge amount of immigration, family and personal data, ranging from schools to preferred leisure and magazines. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a U.S. federal law that signed President Chester A.
Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese workers. Building on the Page Act of 1875, which prohibits Chinese women from immigrating to the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law to be implemented to prevent all members of a particular ethnic or national group from immigrating to the United States. Between 1882 and 1905, about 10,000 Chinese appealed negative immigration decisions to the federal court, usually through a petition for habeas corpus.  In most of these cases, the courts have ruled in favour of the petitioner.  Except in cases of bias or negligence, these petitions were prescribed by a law passed by Congress in 1894 and upheld by the United States Supreme Court against Lem Moon Sing (1895). In U.S. vs. Ju Toy (1905), the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed that port inspectors and the Minister of Commerce had the last authority to determine who could be admitted. Ju Toys` petition was therefore blocked despite the fact that the District Court found that he was a U.S. citizen.
The Supreme Court found that the refusal to enter a port did not require due process and was legally synonymous with a refusal to enter a crossing point. All these developments, as well as the extension of the law in 1902, triggered a boycott of American products in China between 1904 and 1906.  However, there was an 1885 case in San Francisco, in which Washington Treasury officials overturned a decision to deny entry to two Chinese students.  The massacre is named after the site of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, near the mouth of Deep Creek. The area contained numerous rocky cliffs and white rapids which together posed a significant threat to human security. 34 Chinese miners were killed at the site. The miners were employed by Sam Yup, one of China`s six largest companies at the time, which had been working in the sector since October 1886.