1.130 Recommendation. With regard to the responsibility of international environmental agreements, responsible federal authorities or authorities should clearly specify and document the environmental results they expect; How they will measure and communicate the results and how they will evaluate and verify the results in order to improve performance. This success is particularly relevant for cities. With industrialization and population growth, air pollution is increasing in many developing cities, where pollution can be four to fourteen times higher than the World Health Organization`s health guidelines for air pollutants. Since non-urban sources could also make a significant contribution to urban air pollution, many cities will not be able to reduce air pollution solely through local measures. The convention provides scientific tools, models, data, monitoring methods, guidelines and best practices to enable cities to make holistic progress at the local level to combat air pollution. 1.66 Aerial surveillance. The National Aerial Surveillance Program, established in 1991, aims to detect pollution violations and enforce the convention. The program monitors five regions of the country – Newfoundland, maritime, Quebec, the Arctic and the Pacific – with three patrol aircraft. It documents the number of patrol hours, shipovers, pollution observations, vessel overflight observations and the amount of oil spills observed. The program indicates that for Atlantic Canada – the Newfoundland and Maritime regions combined – the pollution outlook decreased significantly between 1992 and 2002-03.
(See photo) In 2001, the United Nations Environment Programme reported that there were „more than 500 international treaties and other environmental agreements…. Nearly 60% date from 1972, the year of the Stockholm conference, until today. The convention has yielded concrete results. Emissions of fine particulate matter and sulphur have decreased by 30-80% in Europe and by 30-40% in North America since 1990. In Europe, these measures have increased life expectancy by one year. Nitrogen oxide emissions have also been halved and lead exposure in the countries of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN-EEC) has been reduced by almost 80% between 1990 and 2012. 1.105 The agreement. The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, particularly as a Waterbird Habitat (the Ramsar Convention), was adopted in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. The agreement entered into force internationally in 1975 and Canada became a contracting party in 1981.
The member countries of the Convention have a total of 138 in May 2004 and represent all geographical regions of the world. 1.24 The department`s performance reports must also strive to be concise and well understood by Canadians. Because they are not intended to be complete or provide comprehensive information on everything a federal department does. Competing priorities often make it more difficult to report on all outstanding programs and initiatives. As a result, there is no indication that responsible departments will use departmental performance reports to report on the results of international environmental agreements. Nevertheless, the Treasury Board of the Secretariat of Canada encourages departments to channel readers to other publications or websites, using their service reports, where they can find more complete performance information. Commission of the European Communities (1996) Commission communication to the Council on Environmental Agreements, COM (96) 561 final. Brussels Chiba Prefecture (1994) Chiba ken no kogai boshi kyotei no ayumi (The Advancement of the Convention for the Control of Pollution in Chiba Prefecture). Chiba Prefecture 1.30 Knowing whether the environmental objectives and desired outcomes of the agreements will be achieved is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of liability. This is to as much concern as to whether the relevant federal departments know the extent to which the concrete objectives of the